Dos Commands For Windows Operating System

Today’s article is about DOS Commands for Windows Operating System. This article will be a mere introduction of the commands.

Command Prompt: The Command prompt was built into Windows to automate routine tasks, like user account management or nightly backups, with batch (.bat) files. With Windows Script Host you could run more sophisticated scripts in the Command Prompt. You can perform operations more efficiently by using scripts than you can by using the user interface. Scripts accept all Commands that are available at the command line. Below is the list of DOS Commands. We will take a look at them.

append: Allows programs to open data files in specified directories as if they were in the current directory. If used without parameters, append displays the appended directory list. This command not supported in Windows 10.

arp: Displays and modifies entries in the Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) cache. The ARP cache contains one or more tables that are used to store IP addresses and their resolved Ethernet or Token Ring physical addresses. There is a separate table for each Ethernet or Token Ring network adapter installed on your computer. Used without parameters, arp displays help information.

assoc: Displays or modifies file name extension associations. If used without parameters, assoc displays a list of all the current file name extension associations. This command is only supported within CMD.EXE and is not available from PowerShell.

at: Schedules commands and programs to run on a computer at a specified time and date. You can use at only when the Schedule service is running. Used without parameters, at lists scheduled commands.

atmadm: Monitors connections and addresses that are registered by the atM call Manager on an asynchronous transfer mode (atM) network. You can use atmadm to display statistics for incoming and outgoing calls on atM adapters. Used without parameters, atmadm displays statistics for monitoring the status of active atM connections.

attrib: Displays, sets, or removes attributes assigned to files or directories. If used without parameters, attrib displays attributes of all files in the current directory.

auditpol: Displays information about and performs functions to manipulate audit policies.

autoconv: Converts file allocation table (Fat) and Fat32 volumes to the NTFS file system, leaving existing files and directories intact at startup after autochk runs. volumes converted to the NTFS file system cannot be converted back to Fat or Fat32. You cannot run autoconv on the command-line. This will only be run at startup, if set through convert.exe.

autofmt: Formats a drive or partition when called from the Windows Recovery Console. You cannot run Autofmt directly from the command-line.

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bcdboot: Enables you to quickly set up a system partition, or to repair the boot environment located on the system partition. The system partition is set up by copying a simple set of Boot Configuration Data (BCD) files to an existing empty partition.

bcdedit: Boot Configuration Data (BCD) files provide a store that is used to describe boot applications and boot application settings. The objects and elements in the store effectively replace Boot.ini. BCDEdit is a command-line tool for managing BCD stores. It can be used for a variety of purposes, including creating new stores, modifying existing stores, adding boot menu parameters, and so on. BCDEdit serves essentially the same purpose as Bootcfg.exe on earlier versions of Windows, but with two major improvements:

  • Exposes a wider range of boot parameters than Bootcfg.exe.
  • Has improved scripting support.

bdehdcfg: Prepares a hard drive with the partitions necessary for BitLocker Drive Encryption. Most installations of Windows 7 will not need to use this tool because BitLocker setup includes the ability to prepare and re-partition drives as required.

bootcfg: Configures, queries, or changes Boot.ini file settings.

break: Sets or clears extended CTRL+C checking on MS-DOS systems. If used without parameters, break displays the current setting.

cacls: Displays or modifies discretionary access control lists (DACL) on specified files.

call: Calls one batch program from another without stopping the parent batch program. The call command accepts labels as the target of the call. Call has no effect at the command prompt when it is used outside of a script or batch file.

cd: Displays the name of or changes the current directory. If used with only a drive letter (for example, cd C:), cd displays the names of the current directory in the specified drive. If used without parameters, cd displays the current drive and directory.

certreq: Certreq can be used to request certificates from a certification authority (CA), to retrieve a response to a previous request from a CA, to create a new request from an .inf file, to accept and install a response to a request, to construct a cross-certification or qualified subordination request from an existing CA certificate or request, and to sign a cross-certification or qualified subordination request.

certutil: Certutil.exe is a command-line program that is installed as part of Certificate Services. You can use Certutil.exe to dump and display certification authority (CA) configuration information, configure Certificate Services, backup and restore CA components, and verify certificates, key pairs, and certificate chains. When certutil is run on a certification authority without additional parameters, it displays the current certification authority configuration. When cerutil is run on a non-certification authority, the command defaults to running the certutil “-dump” verb.

change: Changes Remote Desktop Session Host (rd Session Host) server settings for logons, COM port mappings, and install mode.

chcp: Changes the active console code page. If used without parameters, chcp displays the number of the active console code page.

chdir: This command is the same as the “cd” command.

chglogon: Enables or disables logons from client sessions on an rd Session Host server, or displays current logon status.

chgport: Lists or changes the COM port mappings to be compatible with MS-DOS applications.

chgusr: Changes the install mode for the Remote Desktop Session Host (rd Session Host) server.

chkdsk: Checks the file system and file system metadata of a volume for logical and physical errors. If used without parameters, chkdsk displays only the status of the volume and does not fix any errors. If used with the /f, /r, /x, or /b parameters, it fixes errors on the volume.

chkntfs: Displays or modifies automatic disk checking when the computer is started. If used without options, chkntfs displays the file system of the specified volume. If automatic file checking is scheduled to run, chkntfs displays whether the specified volume is dirty or is scheduled to be checked the next time the computer is started.

choice: Prompts the user to select one item from a list of single-character choices in a batch program, and then returns the index of the selected choice. If used without parameters, choice displays the default choices Y and N.

cipher: Displays or alters the encryption of directories and files on NTFS volumes. If used without parameters, cipher displays the encryption state of the current directory and any files it contains.

cleanmgr: Clears unnecessary files from your computer’s hard disk. You can use command-line options to specify that Cleanmgr cleans up Temp files, Internet files, downloaded files, and recycle bin files. You can then schedule the task to run at a specific time by using the Scheduled Tasks tool.

clip: Redirects command output from the command line to the Windows clipboard. You can then paste this text output into other programs.

comp: Compares the contents of two files or sets of files byte-by-byte. If used without parameters, comp prompts you to enter the files to compare.

compact: Displays or alters the compression of files or directories on NTFS partitions. If used without parameters, compact displays the compression state of the current directory and the files it contains.

convert: Converts file allocation table (FAT) and FAT32 volumes to the NTFS file system, leaving existing files and directories intact. Volumes converted to the NTFS file system cannot be converted back to FAT or FAT32.

copy: Copies one or more files from one location to another.

date – Displays or sets the system date. If used without parameters, date displays the current system date setting and prompts you to enter a new date.

dcgpofix: Recreates the default Group Policy Objects (GPOs) for a domain

defrag: Locates and consolidates fragmented files on local volumes to improve system performance. Membership in the local Administrators group, or equivalent, is the minimum required to run this command.

del: Deletes one or more files. This command is the same as the erase command.

dfsrmig: The command migrates SYSvol replication from File Replication Service (FRS) to Distributed File System (DFS) Replication, provides information about the progress of the migration, and modifies active directory Domain Services (AD DS) objects to support the migration.

diantz: This command is the same as the makecab command. Refer to the makecab command.

dir: Displays a list of a directory’s files and sub directories. If used without parameters, dir displays the disk’s volume label and serial number, followed by a list of directories and files on the disk (including their names and the date and time each was last modified). For files, dir displays the name extension and the size in bytes. Dir also displays the total number of files and directories listed, their cumulative size, and the free space (in bytes) remaining on the disk.

diskcomp: Compares the contents of two floppy disks. If used without parameters, diskcomp uses the current drive to compare both disks.

diskcopy: Copies the contents of the floppy disk in the source drive to a formatted or unformatted floppy disk in the destination drive. If used without parameters, diskcopy uses the current drive for the source disk and the destination disk.

diskperf: Diskperf is included in Windows XP, Windows Server 2003, Windows Server 2008, Windows Vista, Windows Server 2008 R2, and Windows 7 so that it can be used to remotely enable or disable physical or logical disk performance counters on computers running Windows 2000.

diskshadow: Diskshadow.exe is a tool that exposes the functionality offered by the volume shadow copy Service (VSS). By default, diskshadow uses an interactive command interpreter similar to that of diskraid or DiskPart. diskshadow also includes a scriptable mode.

dispdiag: Logs display information to a file.

doskey: Calls Doskey.exe (which recalls previously entered command-line commands), edits command lines, and creates macros.

driverquery: Enables an administrator to display a list of installed device drivers and their properties. If used without parameters, driverquery runs on the local computer.

echo: Displays messages or turns on or off the command echoing feature. If used without parameters, echo displays the current echo setting.

edit: Starts MS-DOS Editor, which creates and changes ASCII text files.

endlocal: Ends localization of environment changes in a batch file, and restores environment variables to their values before the corresponding setlocal command was run.

erase: This command is the same as the del command. Refer to del command.

eventcreate: Enables an administrator to create a custom event in a specified event log.

eventquery: Eventquery is deprecated, and is not guaranteed to be supported in future releases of Windows. This tool is included in Windows Server 2003 .

eventtriggers: Eventtriggers is deprecated, and is not guaranteed to be supported in future releases of Windows.

exit: exits the Cmd.exe program (the command interpreter) or the current batch script.

expand: Expands one or more compressed files. You can use this command to retrieve compressed files from distribution disks.

extract: Extracts a file.

fc: Compares two files or sets of files and displays the differences between them.

find: Searches for a string of text in a file or files, and displays lines of text that contain the specified string.

findstr: Searches for patterns of text in files.

finger: Displays information about a user or users on a specified remote computer (typically a computer running UNIX) that is running the finger service or daemon. The remote computer specifies the format and output of the user information display. Used without parameters, finger displays help.

flattemp: Enables or disables flat temporary folders. for examples of how to use this command.

fondue: Enables Windows optional features by downloading required files from Windows Update or another source specified by Group Policy. The manifest file for the feature must already be installed in your Windows image.

for: Runs a specified command for each file in a set of files.

forfiles: Selects and executes a command on a file or set of files. This command is useful for batch processing.

format: Formats a disk to accept Windows files.

freedisk: Checks to see if the specified amount of disk space is available before continuing with an installation process.

ftp: Transfers files to and from a computer running a File Transfer Protocol (ftp) server service, ftp can be used interactively or in batch mode by processing ASCII text files.

ftype: Displays or modifies file types that are used in file name extension associations. If used without an assignment operator (=), ftype displays the current open command string for the specified file type. If used without parameters, ftype displays the file types that have open command strings defined.

fveupdate: FveUpdate is an internally used tool that is run by setup when a computer is upgraded from Windows Vista or Windows Server 2008 to Windows 7 or Windows Server 2008 R2. It updates the metadata associated with BitLocker to the latest version. This tool cannot be run independently.

getmac: Returns the media access control (MAC) address and list of network protocols associated with each address for all network cards in each computer, either locally or across a network.

gettype: Gettype is deprecated, and is not guaranteed to be supported in future releases of Windows. This tool is included in Windows Server 2003.

goto: Directs cmd.exe to a labeled line in a batch program. Within a batch program, goto directs command processing to a line that is identified by a label. When the label is found, processing continues starting with the commands that begin on the next line.

gpfixup: Fix domain name dependencies in Group Policy Objects and Group Policy links after a domain rename operation.

gpresult: Displays the Resultant Set of Policy (RSoP) information for a remote user and computer. To use RSoP reporting for remotely targeted computers through the firewall, you must have firewall rules that enable inbound network traffic on the ports.

gpupdate: Updates Group Policy settings.

graftabl: Enables Windows operating systems to display an extended character set in graphics mode. If used without parameters, graftabl displays the previous and the current code page.

help: Provides online information about system commands (that is, non-network commands). If used without parameters, help lists and briefly describes every system command.

helpctr: Helpctr is deprecated, and is not guaranteed to be supported in future releases of Windows. This tool is included in Windows Server 2003.

hostname: Displays the host name portion of the full computer name of the computer.

icacls: Displays or modifies discretionary access control lists (DACLs) on specified files, and applies stored DACLs to files in specified directories.

if: Performs conditional processing in batch programs.

inuse: Inuse is deprecated, and is not guaranteed to be supported in future releases of Windows. This tool is included in Windows Server 2003.

ipconfig: Displays all current TCP/IP network configuration values and refreshes Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) and Domain Name System (DNS) settings. Used without parameters, ipconfig displays Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) and IPv6 addresses, subnet mask, and default gateway for all adapters.

ipxroute: Displays and modifies information about the routing tables used by the IPX protocol. Used without parameters, ipxroute displays the default settings for packets that are sent to unknown, broadcast, and multicast addresses.

irftp: Sends files over an infrared link.

jetpack: compacts a Windows Internet Name Service (WINS) or Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) database. Microsoft recommends that you compact the WINS database whenever it approaches 30 MB.

klist: Displays a list of currently cached Kerberos tickets. This information applies to Windows Server 2012.

ktpass: Configures the server principal name for the host or service in active directory Domain Services (AD DS) and generates a .keytab file that contains the shared secret key of the service. The .keytab file is based on the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) implementation of the Kerberos authentication protocol. The ktpass command-line tool allows non-Windows services that support Kerberos authentication to use the interoperability features provided by the Kerberos Key Distribution Center (KDC) service. This topic applies to the operating system versions designated in the Applies To list at the beginning of the topic.

ktmutil: Starts the Kernel Transaction Manager utility. If used without parameters, ktmutil displays available subcommands.

label: Creates, changes, or deletes the volume label (that is, the name) of a disk. If used without parameters, the label command changes the current volume label or deletes the existing label.

lodctr: Allows you to register or save performance counter name and registry settings in a file and designate trusted services.

logoff: Logs off a user from a session on a Remote Desktop Session Host (rd Session Host) server and deletes the session from the server.

lpq: Displays the status of a print queue on a computer running Line printer Daemon (LPD).

lpr: Sends a file to a computer or printer sharing device running the Line printer Daemon (LPD) service in preparation for printing.

macfile: Manages File Server for Macintosh servers, volumes, directories, and files. You can automate administrative tasks by including a series of commands in batch files and starting them manually or at predetermined times.

makecab: Package existing files into a cabinet (.cab) file.

mapadmin: You can use mapadmin to manage User Name Mapping for Microsoft Services for Network File System.

md: Creates a directory or sub directory. This command is the same as the mkdir command.

mkdir: Creates a directory or sub directory.

mklink: Creates a symbolic link.

mmc: Using mmc command-line options, you can open a specific mmc console, open mmc in author mode, or specify that the 32-bit or 64-bit version of mmc is opened.

mode: Displays system status, changes system settings, or reconfigures ports or devices. If used without parameters, mode displays all the controllable attributes of the console and the available COM devices.

mount: You can use mount to mount Network File System (NFS) network shares.

more: Displays one screen of output at a time.

mqbkup: Backs up MSMQ message files and registry settings to a storage device and restores previously-stored messages and settings.
Both the backup and the restore operation will stop the local MSMQ service. If the MSMQ service was started beforehand, the utility will attempt to restart the MSMQ service at the end of the backup or the restore operation. If the service was already stopped before running the utility, no attempt to restart the service is made. Before using the MSMQ Message Backup/Restore utility you must close all local applications that are using MSMQ.

mqsvc: Message Queuing technology enables applications running at different times to communicate across heterogeneous networks and systems that may be temporarily offline. Message Queuing provides guaranteed message delivery, efficient routing, security, and priority-based messaging. It can be used to implement solutions for both asynchronous and synchronous messaging scenarios.

msdt: Invokes a troubleshooting pack at the command line or as part of an automated script, and enables additional options without user input.

msg: Sends a message to a user on a Remote Desktop Session Host (rd Session Host) server.

msiexec: Provides the means to install, modify, and perform operations on Windows Installer from the command line.

msinfo32: Opens the System Information tool to display a comprehensive view of the hardware, system components, and software environment on the local computer.

mstsc: Creates connections to Remote Desktop Session Host (rd Session Host) servers or other remote computers, edits an existing Remote Desktop Connection (.rdp) configuration file, and migrates legacy connection files that were created with Client Connection Manager to new .rdp connection files.

nbtstat: Displays NetBIOS over TCP/IP (NetBT) protocol statistics, NetBIOS name tables for both the local computer and remote computers, and the NetBIOS name cache. nbtstat allows a refresh of the NetBIOS name cache and the names registered with Windows Internet Name Service (WINS). Used without parameters, nbtstat displays help.

netcfg: Installs the Windows Preinstallation Environment (WinPE), a lightweight version of Windows used to deploy workstations.

netsh: Netsh is a command-line scripting utility that allows you to, either locally or remotely, display or modify the network configuration of a currently running computer.

netstat: Displays active TCP connections, ports on which the computer is listening, Ethernet statistics, the IP routing table, IPv4 statistics (for the IP, ICMP, TCP, and UDP protocols), and IPv6 statistics (for the IPv6, ICMPv6, TCP over IPv6, and UDP over IPv6 protocols). Used without parameters, netstat displays active TCP connections.

nfsadmin: You can use nfsadmin to manage Server for NFS and Client for NFS.

nfsshare: You can use nfsshare to control Network File System (NFS) shares.

nfsstat: You can use nfsstat to display or reset counts of calls made to Server for NFS.

nlbmgr: Using Network Load Balancing Manager, you can configure and manage your Network Load Balancing clusters and all cluster hosts from a single computer, and you can also replicate the cluster configuration to other hosts. You can start Network Load Balancing Manager from the command-line using the command nlbmgr.exe, which is installed in the systemroot\System32 folder.

nslookup: Displays information that you can use to diagnose Domain Name System (DNS) infrastructure. Before using this tool, you should be familiar with how DNS works. The nslookup command-line tool is available only if you have installed the TCP/IP protocol.

ntbackup: The ntbackup command is not available in Windows Vista or Windows Server 2008. Instead, you should use the wbadmin command and subcommands to back up and restore your computer and files from a command prompt. You cannot recover backups that you created with ntbackup by using wbadmin. However, a version of ntbackup is available as a download for Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista users who want to recover backups that they created using ntbackup.

ntcmdprompt: Runs the command interpreter Cmd.exe, rather than, after running a Terminate and Stay Resident (TSR) or after starting the command prompt from within an MS-DOS application.

ntfrsutl: Dumps the internal tables, thread, and memory information for the NT File Replication Service (NTFRS). It runs against local and remote servers. The recovery setting for NTFRS in Service Control Manager (SCM) can be critical to locating and keeping IMPORTANT log events on the computer. This tool provides a convenient method of reviewing those settings.

openfiles: Enables an administrator to query, display, or disconnect files and directories that have been opened on a system. Also enables or disables the system Maintain Objects List global flag.

pagefileconfig: Pagefileconfig is deprecated, and is not guaranteed to be supported in future releases of Windows.

Path: Sets the command path in the PATH environment variable (the set of directories used to search for executable files). If used without parameters, path displays the current command path.

pathping: Provides information about network latency and network loss at intermediate hops between a source and destination. Pathping sends multiple echo Request messages to each router between a source and destination over a period of time and then computes results based on the packets returned from each router. Because Pathping displays the degree of packet loss at any given router or link, you can determine which routers or subnets might be having network problems. Pathping performs the equivalent of the tracert command by identifying which routers are on the path. It then sends pings periodically to all of the routers over a specified time period and computes statistics based on the number returned from each. Used without parameters, pathping displays help.

pause: Suspends the processing of a batch program and displays the following prompt: “Press any key to continue.”

pbadmin: Pbadmin is deprecated, and is not guaranteed to be supported in future releases of Windows. This tool is included in Windows Server 2003.

pentnt: Pentnt is deprecated, and is not guaranteed to be supported in future releases of Windows.

perfmon: Start Windows Reliability and Performance Monitor in a specific standalone mode.

ping: The ping command verifies IP-level connectivity to another TCP/IP computer by sending Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) echo Request messages. The receipt of corresponding echo Reply messages are displayed, along with round-trip times. ping is the primary TCP/IP command used to troubleshoot connectivity, reachability, and name resolution. Used without parameters, ping displays help.

pnpunattend: Audits a computer for device drivers, and perform unattended driver installations, or search for drivers without installing and, optionally, report the results to the command line. Use this command to specify the installation of specific drivers for specific hardware devices.

pnputil: Pnputil.exe is a command line utility that you can use to manage the driver store. You can use Pnputil to add driver packages, remove driver packages, and list driver packages that are in the store.

popd: Changes the current directory to the directory that was most recently stored by the pushd command.

PowerShell: Windows PowerShell is a task-based command-line shell and scripting language designed especially for system administration. Built on the .NET Framework, Windows PowerShell helps IT professionals and power users control and automate the administration of the Windows operating system and applications that run on Windows. The PowerShell.exe command-line tool starts a Windows PowerShell session in a Command Prompt window. When you use PowerShell.exe, you can use its optional parameters to customize the session. For example, you can start a session that uses a particular execution policy or one that excludes a Windows PowerShell profile. Otherwise, the session is the same as any session that is started in the Windows PowerShell console.

print: Sends a text file to a printer.

prncnfg: Configures or displays configuration information about a printer.

prndrvr: Use the prndrvr command to add, delete, and list printer drivers.

prnjobs: Pauses, resumes, cancels, and lists print jobs.

prnmngr: Adds, deletes, and lists printers or printer connections, in addition to setting and displaying the default printer.

prnport: Creates, deletes, and lists standard TCP/IP printer ports, in addition to displaying and changing port configuration.

pushprinterconnections: Reads Deployed Printer Connection settings from Group Policy and deploys/removes printer connections as needed.

prompt: Changes the Cmd.exe command prompt. If used without parameters, prompt resets the command prompt to the default setting, which is the current drive letter and directory followed by the greater than symbol (>).

qappsrv: Displays a list of all Remote Desktop Session Host (RD Session Host) servers on the network.

qprocess: Displays information about processes that are running on a Remote Desktop Session Host (RD Session Host) server.

query: Displays information about processes, sessions, and Remote Desktop Session Host (RD Session Host) servers.

quser: Displays information about user sessions on a Remote Desktop Session Host (rd Session Host) server.

qwinsta: Displays information about sessions on a Remote Desktop Session Host (RD Session Host) server.

rcp: Copies files between computers. This command has been deprecated. You can install the Subsystem for UNIX-based Applications using the Add Features Wizard.

rd: Deletes a directory. This command is the same as the rmdir command.

rdpsign: Enables you to digitally sign a Remote Desktop Protocol (.rdp) file.

recover: Recovers readable information from a bad or defective disk.

reg: Performs operations on registry subkey information and values in registry entries. There are many sub commands too. Please check those out.

regsvr32: Registers .dll files as command components in the registry.

relog: Extracts performance counters from performance counter logs into other formats, such as text-TSV (for tab-delimited text), text-CSV (for comma-delimited text), binary-BIN, or SQL.

rem: Records comments (remarks) in a batch file or CONFIG.SYS. If no comment is specified, rem adds vertical spacing.

rename: This is the same as the ren command.

repair-bde: Accesses encrypted data on a severely damaged hard disk if the drive was encrypted by using BitLocker. Repair-bde can reconstruct critical parts of the drive and salvage recoverable data as long as a valid recovery password or recovery key is used to decrypt the data. If the BitLocker metadata data on the drive has become corrupt, you must be able to supply a backup key package in addition to the recovery password or recovery key. This key package is backed up in Active Directory Domain Services (AD DS) if you used the default setting for AD DS backup. With this key package and either the recovery password or recovery key, you can decrypt portions of a BitLocker-protected drive if the disk is corrupted. Each key package will work only for a drive that has the corresponding drive identifier. You can use the BitLocker Recovery Password Viewer for Active Directory to obtain this key package from AD DS.

replace: Replaces files. If used with the /a option, replace adds new files to a directory instead of replacing existing files.

reset session: Enables you to reset (delete) a session on a Remote Desktop Session Host (rd Session Host) server.

rexec: Rexec is deprecated, and is not guaranteed to be supported in future releases of Windows. This tool is included in Windows Server 2003.

risetup: The risetup command is deprecated in Windows Server 2008 and Windows Server 2008 R2.

rmdir: This command is the same as the rd command.

robocopy: Copies file data.

route_ws2008: Displays and modifies the entries in the local IP routing table. Used without parameters, route displays help.

rpcinfo: Lists programs on remote computers. The rpcinfo command-line utility makes a remote procedure call (RPC) to an RPC server and reports what it finds.

rpcping: Confirms the RPC connectivity between the computer running Microsoft Exchange Server and any of the supported Microsoft Exchange Client workstations on the network. This utility can be used to check if the Microsoft Exchange Server services are responding to RPC requests from the client workstations via the network.

rundll32: Loads and runs 32-bit dynamic-link libraries (DLLs). There are no configurable settings for Rundll32. Help information is provided for a specific DLL you run with the rundll32 command. You must run the rundll32 command from an elevated command prompt. To open an elevated command prompt, click Start, right-click Command Prompt, and then click Run as administrator.

rwinsta: Enables you to reset (delete) a session on a Remote Desktop Session Host (rd Session Host) server.

schtasks: Schedules commands and programs to run periodically or at a specific time. Adds and removes tasks from the schedule, starts and stops tasks on demand, and displays and changes scheduled tasks.

Servermanagercmd: This command is available only on servers that are running Windows Server 2008 or Windows Server 2008 R2 . Servermanagercmd.exe has been deprecated, and is not available in Windows Server 2012.

serverweroptin: Allows you to enable error reporting.

set: Displays, sets, or removes CMD.EXE environment variables. If used without parameters, set displays the current environment variable settings.

setlocal: Starts localization of environment variables in a batch file. Localization continues until a matching endlocal command is encountered or the end of the batch file is reached.

shadow: Enables you to remotely control an active session of another user on a Remote Desktop Session Host (rd Session Host) server.

shift: Changes the position of batch parameters in a batch file.

showmount: You can use showmount to display mounted directories.

sort: Reads input, sorts data, and writes the results to the screen, to a file, or to another device.

shutdown: Enables you to shut down or restart local or remote computers one at a time.

subst: Associates a path with a drive letter. If used without parameters, subst displays the names of the virtual drives in effect.

sxstrace: Diagnoses side-by-side problems.

sysocmgr: Sysocmgr is deprecated, and is not guaranteed to be supported in future releases of Windows. This tool is included in Windows Server 2003.

systeminfo: Displays detailed configuration information about a computer and its operating system, including operating system configuration, security information, product ID, and hardware properties (such as RAM, disk space, and network cards).

takeown: Enables an administrator to recover access to a file that previously was denied, by making the administrator the owner of the file.

tapicfg: Creates, removes, or displays a TAPI application directory partition, or sets a default TAPI application directory partition. TAPI 3.1 clients can use the information in this application directory partition with the directory service locator service to find and communicate with TAPI directories.You can also use tapicfg to create or remove service connection points, which enable TAPI clients to efficiently locate TAPI application directory partitions in a domain.

taskkill: Ends one or more tasks or processes. Processes can be ended by process ID or image name. taskkill replaces the kill tool.

telnet: Communicates with a computer running the telnet Server service.

tftp: Transfers files to and from a remote computer, typically a computer running UNIX, that is running the Trivial File Transfer Protocol (tftp) service or daemon. tftp is typically used by embedded devices or systems that retrieve firmware, configuration information, or a system image during the boot process from a tftp server.

time: Displays or sets the system time. If used without parameters, time displays the current system time and prompts you to enter a new time.

timeout: Pauses the command processor for the specified number of seconds.

title: Creates a title for the Command Prompt window.

tlntadmn: Administers a local or remote computer that is running the telnet Server Service.

tpmvscmgr: The tpmvscmgr command-line tool allows users with Administrative credentials to create and delete TPM virtual smart cards on a computer.

tracerpt: The tracerpt command can be used to parse Event Trace Logs, log files generated by Performance Monitor, and real-time Event Trace providers. It generates dump files, report files, and report schemas.

tracert: Determines the path taken to a destination by sending Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) echo Request or ICMPv6 messages to the destination with incrementally increasing time to Live (TTL) field values. The path displayed is the list of near/side router interfaces of the routers in the path between a source host and a destination. The near/side interface is the interface of the router that is closest to the sending host in the path. Used without parameters, tracert displays help.

tree: Displays the directory structure of a path or of the disk in a drive graphically.

tscon: Connects to another session on a Remote Desktop Session Host (rd Session Host) server.

tsdiscon: Disconnects a session from a Remote Desktop Session Host (rd Session Host) server.

tskill: Ends a process running in a session on a Remote Desktop Session Host (rd Session Host) server.

type: In the Windows Command shell, type is a built in command which displays the contents of a text file. Use the type command to view a text file without modifying it.

typeperf: The typeperf command writes performance data to the command window or to a log file. To stop typeperf, press CTRL+C.

tzutil: Displays the Windows time Zone Utility.

unlodctr: Removes Performance counter names and Explain text for a service or device driver from the system registry.

ver: Displays the operating system version number. This command is supported in the Windows Command prompt (Cmd.exe), but not in PowerShell.

Vssadmin: Displays current volume shadow copy backups and all installed shadow copy writers and providers. Select a command name in the following table view its command syntax.

waitfor: Sends or waits for a signal on a system. Waitfor is used to synchronize computers across a network.

wbadmin: Enables you to back up and restore your operating system, volumes, files, folders, and applications from a command prompt. To configure a regularly scheduled backup, you must be a member of the Administrators group. To perform all other tasks with this command, you must be a member of the Backup Operators or the Administrators group, or you must have been delegated the appropriate permissions. You must run wbadmin from an elevated command prompt. (To open an elevated command prompt, right-click Command Prompt, and then click Run as administrator.)

where: Displays the location of files that match the given search pattern.

whoami: Displays user, group and privileges information for the user who is currently logged on to the local system. If used without parameters, whoami displays the current domain and user name.

winnt32: Performs an installation of or upgrade to a product in Windows Server 2003. You can run winnt32 at the command prompt on a computer running Windows 95, Windows 98, Windows Millennium edition, Windows NT, Windows 2000, Windows XP, or a product in the Windows Server 2003. If you run winnt32 on a computer running Windows NT version 4.0, you must first apply Service Pack 5 or later.

wscript: Windows Script Host provides an environment in which users can execute scripts in a variety of languages that use a variety of object models to perform tasks.

winrs: Windows remote Management allows you to manage and execute programs remotely.

xcopy: Copies files and directories, including subdirectories.

If you want more detailed information about the parameters required to execute the command or a few examples of the respective command, then please check out the website given below.

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